Very first, we investigated the partnership anywhere between liars’ thinking-claimed lie-advising frequency and you may self-advertised deception element
To investigate whether participants differed in their endorsement of the importance of verbal versus nonverbal strategies based on their self-reported deception ability, we conducted two between-subjects ANOVAs with deception ability (Poor, Neutral, Good) on participants’ Likert scale ratings of the importance of verbal and nonverbal strategies. Additionally, the data were examined by calculating Bayesian ANOVAs with default prior scales, using JASP software. We report the Bayesian factors [BF; see 39, 40] in line with the guidelines by Jarosz and Wiley , adjusted from Jeffreys . For ease of interpretation, BFten is used to indicate the Bayes factor as evidence in favour of the alternative hypothesis, whereas BF01 is used to indicate the Bayes factor as evidence in favour of the null hypothesis.
First, we found a significant effect of self-reported deception ability on participants’ endorsement of verbal strategies, F(2, 191) = 5.62, p = .004, ?P 2 = .056; BF10 = 7.11. Post hoc comparisons indicated that Good liars rated verbal strategies as significantly more important than Neutral liars (Mdiff = -0.82, 95% CI [-1.47, -0.18], p = .009), and Poor liars (Mdiff = -0.83, 95% CI [-1.54, -0.11], p = .018). Participants across groups did not differ with respect to their endorsement of the importance of nonverbal strategies, F(2, 191) = .003, p = .997, ?P 2 < .001; BF01 = .
Verbal and nonverbal tips
Next, we examined which specific verbal strategies participants reported to use when lying. We asked participants to indicate, from a list of ten options, which strategies they use. Table 2 provides an overview of the strategies endorsed by Poor, Neutral, and Good liars. Across all groups, the most frequently reported strategies were “Keeping the statement clear and simple” (endorsed by 17.6% of participants), “Telling a plausible story” (15.1% of participants), “Using avoidance/being vague about details” (13.2% of participants) and “Embedding the lie into an otherwise truthful story” (13.1% of participants).